Location: North of the Country.
Area: 14,213 km2
Minimum: 4 masl (Pimentel)
Maximum: 3078 masl (Incahuasi)
Lambayeque is made up by large plains, where no farming takes place, because of lack of water. However, in the last centuries, the Olmos Carob Tree Forest held goat herds that fed on the food of this tree. This gave rise to the leather, cordobanes, soap and kid skin industry.
The hydrographic system of Lambayeque is made up by the Zaña, Lambayeque and Jayanca rivers. The largest part of them are formed in the highlands of Cajamarca, excepting the Motupe and Olmos rivers.
In the Lambayeque zone were established important Pre-Columbian cultures, such as the Mochica and Chimú, known for its famous and artistic works of gold and silver smithing. Among other archaeological remains is Sipán, where important archaeological remains have been found. Later periods converted the region into the Empire of the Great Chimú. The Incas Pachacútec, Túpac Yupanqui and Huayna Cápac conquered the Empire of the Great Chimú.
The first spanish forces that came to Lambayeque were those of Francisco Pizarro, on his way to Cajamarca to conquer the Inca Empire. Once accomplished the conquest of Peru, after the imprisonment and death of Atahualpa, Pizarro left many soldiers in the localities of Lambayeque. This city was founded in 1553 and the City of Zaña in 1563, by order of the Viceroy, Conde de Nieva. In 1720 the Zaña river flooded the town and destroyed it totally. Its inhabitants moved to Lambayeque, which since then became the capital of the province.
During Independence, it was one of the main strongholds against spanish domination. It collaborated with the liberating army of San Martín. During the Republican Period Lambayeque stop being part of the Trujillo Intendency and became a province. During the war with Chile, people joined to face the enemy. Chiclayo was occupied twice by the invaders. During the Republic salient Lambayecanos were president Augusto B. Leguía, Pedro Ruiz Gallo and Federico Villareal.
Currently Lambayeque has important sugar cane mills and the Tinajones Dam. It is the first producer of rice in Peru, and there is a great farming and commercial development.