Location: Central coast.
Area: 34,802 km2
The geography of the department of Lima is interesting, it being the most Andean one of the coast, since the Andes reach down to the shore in great altitude. The Cerro de Pasamayo reaches almost 1,000 meters in height, almost vertically over the Pacific Ocean. The Andes rise gigantically at less than 20 - 30 KM from the sea and its valleys form triangular inclined planes with peak encrusted in the Andes. They extent up to 40 km in very few places.
Lima has several copious rivers, such as the Huaura, Pativilca, Chillón, Cañete and Rímac, this last one with a course of 160 km, formed by its union with the Santa Eulalia near Chosica.
Lima along its shores a great number of islands, keys, and reefs. The San Lorenzo Island is the biggest one of the Pacific Ocean Islands of Peru. Islands such as the Pachacamac, Asia and El Frontón, are sizeable deposits of guano.
The Lima littoral is overcast almost all year long. This on a strip up to 15 m. wide from the shore, depriving it from solar radiation. The sun appears at the end of spring and in summer. The increase of heat coincides with the swollen of the rivers because of the Andean rains. In winter the intense humidity produces the vegetation called lomas, the most important ones being the ones at Lachay and Pasamayo.
The sea at Lima has some very beautiful bays, appropiate for ports such as the ones in Cerro Azul, Chancay and Huacho. Besides it has a great ictiologial richness, that is different from the ones in the northern and southern seas. Lima has in its Andean zone a great variety of minerals such as copper, silver, calcium and salt. Mines from Casapalca to San Mateo contain silver and copper. The coal zone of the central basin reaches Oyón, 100 KM from the sea.
In Lima are to be found the remains of the first Andean inhabitant: hunters and harpoon fishermen, about 1,000 years ago. These remains were found in Chivateros, near the Chillón river, and in various places such as Ancón and Lurín. After a long time they incorporated nets, hooks, farming, ceramics and weaving.
The inhabitants of the coast lived in the lomas and the valleys forming temples and dwelling complexes that give origin to immense ceremonial centers such as the Huacoy on the Chillón river; Garagay and La Florida on the Rímac river, Manchay on the Lurín river; and Chancay, Supe and many other valleys to the north and south. There are finely ornamented temples with figures modeled in clay. Then the Lima culture took shape, specially developed on the center Valleys from Chancay down to Lurín, with painted adobe buildings. The best known are the Márquez on the Chillón and Cerro Trinidad on the Chancay; later became more important those of Maranga and Juliana on the Rímac, and that of Pachacamac in Lurín.
Lima, named "City of the Kings" by the spaniards is today Peru's first financial and industrial center.