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Peru Geography
About Peru

Cusco, Land of the Incas
Inca Trail to Machu Picchu
Puno and Lake Titicaca
Nazca Lines
Choquequirao Peru
Royal Tombs of Sipan
The Kuelap Fortress
Colca Canyon in Arequipa
Mountaineering in Peru
Manu National Park
Paracas National Reserve
Machu Picchu Cusco
Lima Peru

Destinations in Peru

Abancay
Arequipa
Ayacucho
Cajamarca
Colca Valley
Cusco
Chachapoyas
Chiclayo
Huancavelica
Huancayo
Huanuco
Huaraz
Ica
Iquitos
Lima
Machu Picchu
Manu
Moquegua
Moyobamba
Nazca
Ollantaytambo
Paracas
Pasco
Piura
Pucallpa
Puerto Maldonado
Puno
Sacred Valley
Tacna
Tarapoto
Trujillo
Tumbes
 


Peru is divided into three regions: coast, highlands and jungle.

Although this simple division is a fair portrait of Peru's geography, the reality is much richer and far more complex: in Peru, nature appears to have taken on particular characteristics which have turned its mountains, plains, jungles and valleys into unique habitats.

An extraordinary variety of eco-systems shelters a wide diversity of animals and plants.

Area:
Total: 1,285,220 sq km
Land: 1.28 million sq km
Water: 5,220 sq km

Land boundaries:
Total: 5,536 km
Border countries: Bolivia 900 km, Brazil 1,560 km, Chile 160 km, Colombia 1,496 km (est.), Ecuador 1,420 km

Coastline:
2,414 km

Maritime claims:
Continental shelf: 200 nm
Territorial sea: 200 nm

Climate:
Varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes.

Terrain:
Western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva).

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
Highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m

Natural resources:
Copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower.

Land use:
Arable land: 3%
Permanent crops: 0%
Permanent pastures: 21%
Forests and woodland: 66%
Other: 10% (1993 est.)

Irrigated land:
12,800 sq km (1993 est.)

Natural hazards:
Earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity.

Environment - current issues:
Deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes.

Environment - international agreements:
Party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol.

Geography - note:
Shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia.


 

About Peru

Peru Facts at a Glance
General Information
Communications in Peru
Economic Profile
Map of Peru

Peru Geography
Peruvian Coast
Peruvian Highlands
Peruvian Jungle

Peru History
The First Settlers
The Pre-Incas Cultures
The Incas Empire
The Encounter Between Two Worlds
Birth of the Peruvian State
Peru Today
Peru: World Heritage

About Peru

Peru Facts at a Glance
Destinations in Peru
Archaeological Sites
Historical Legacy
Nature and Ecology
Peru Culture & Traditions
Adventure Sports in Peru

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